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  • Link 原著 Original Article
  • 雙溪鄉學幼童蟯蟲病防治工作之探討An Investigation of the Prevention and Treatment of Enterobiasis of the Children in Shuang-Hsi District
  • 李龍騰、賴美淑、謝維銓、吳羽君
    Long-Teng Lee, Mei-Shu Lai, Wei-Chuan Hsieh, Yu-Chun Wu

  • enterobiasis ; mebendazole ; pyrantel pamoatr ; school children
  • 學幼童寄生蟲病之盛行一直在衛生主管單位的努力下極力控制。本文乃針對鄉下地區學幼童做全鄉式的檢查及治療。發現在雙溪鄉,1456位學幼童中,有481名(33.0%)具蟯蟲感染,且其感染率與該學幼童家庭經濟背景,家中人口數,及平常驅蟲劑治療間並無明顯之關係。但是,國小學童中,隨著年齡之增加,其蟯蟲病罹息率隨之遞減,衛生習慣的養成與再感染率的降低有極密切的關係。 使用pyrantel pamoate或menbendazole對蟯蟲病的治療效果差不多,但是,單一次治療不是最好的方式。最好能連續治療三次,每次間隔一週,如此,治療效果最?顯著,而且,其再感染率也最低。 團體治療或個案治療的近程效果沒有顯著的差異,但是,團體治療對再感染率的控制效果比較好。再感染率的控制才是蟯蟲病防治的最重要課題。學校教育及家庭生活對學幼童燒蟲病再感染的影響最大,所以,最好的治療及控制蟯蟲病的方法將是「家庭治療」配合「學校衛生教育」。
    The prevelance of enterobiasis of children has been controlled by the government with great efforts. We had whole district survey and treatment of enterobiasis for the children of Shuang-Hsi district. Among 1456 primary school children and preschool children, the prevalence rate of enterobiasis was 33.0%. The prevalence rate of enterobiasis of Shuang-Hsi district children had no relations to the socioeconomic status, number of family member, or the frequence of antihelminthic medication for the children. But, as to the primary school children, we found the prevalence rate of enterobiasis decreased as the age of the children increased. The changing of personal hygiene habits has close relation to the decrease of the prevalence rate of enterobiasis. There was no significant difference in therapeutic effect between pyrantel pamoate and mebendazole. One-dose therapy is not the adequate method for the treatment for enterobiasis. The best way of treatment for enterobiasis is consecutive three-dose therapy (one dose every other week), as the reinfection rate is the lowest with this menthod. There was no real difference in the therapeutic effect between group therapy and case therapy. The control of reinfection is the most important problem for the prevention and treatment of enterobiasis. The school education and the family lifestyle had the most important influences on the reinfection rate in our study. The best way of the control of enterobiasis for the children will be ”Family therapy” combining with ”School health education”.
  • 1-11
  • 10.6288/JNPHARC1987-07-02-01
  • Link 原著 Original Article
  • 人造皮(與令成皮)製造工人二甲基甲醯胺(Dimethyl Formamide)之暴露Exposure to Dimethyl Formamide in Resin Fabric Coating Manufacture
  • 林嘉明、蕭淑珍、王榮德、江正榮
    Jia-Ming Lin, Shwu-Jen Shiau, Jung-Der Wang, Jen-Ron Chiang

  • resin fabric coating manufacture ; dimethyl formamide ; activated charcoal tube ; Tedlar gas bag ; gas chromatograph ; short-term exposure level
  • 二甲基甲醯胺(dimethyl formamide DMF)?良好的溶劑,廣泛地被工業界使用,做?樹脂之溶劑。有工人暴露DMF引起腹痛及肝功能障害,已引起注意。本研究調查一家人造皮(與合成皮)製造工廠,採取巡視及空氣污染物採樣之方式,以觀察及儀器分析之結果,推論某些個別操作誘發短時間高濃度的暴露,尤其是處理機之運作及配料過程。建議採取適當措施避免這類短時期高濃度的暴露。
    Dimethyl formamide (UMF), a widely used solvent for resin, has been reported to cause abdominal pain and hepatic demage. The purpose of this study was to determine the exposure concentration of DMF and other solvents in a factory of resin fabric coating. A walk-through survey was conducted and air sampling, samples from bulk solvents and samples from workers expired air were also taken and further analyzed by gas chromatography. The findings led to inference that the super-imposed, short-term, peak concentration of DMF had occurred in some operations, especially during the finishing process as well as the compounding and dispensing process. Both engineering control and good work practice should be improved in order to prevent the exposure from high concentration of DMF and other solvents.
  • 12 - 19
  • 10.6288/JNPHARC1987-07-02-02
  • Link 原著 Original Article
  • 臺灣地區婦女使用子宮內避孕器(樂普、銅T、母體樂)後,自覺副作用之研究A Study on the Self-Perceptive Side Effects of Users of Intra-Uterine Devices in Taiwan Area
  • 姜錦燁、林文龍
    C. Y. Chiang, W. L. Lin

  • IUDs ; side effect ; self-perception ; seriousness degree ; duration ; preference for contraception
  • 故意取出是婦女停換用子宮內避孕器的首要原因,而副作用是故意取出的主要原因。本研究針對台灣地區裝置樂普、銅T和母體樂的婦女,分析其各種副作用的發生比率並討副作用種類、嚴重度、持續時間與避孕器種類、繼續使用狀況、婦女之避孕偏好和其它特性的關係。 研究資料取自台灣省家庭市計畫研究所民國七十三年「台灣地區各種避孕方法接受者追?調查」資料。除了各種資料本身代表著實際的可能狀況作,它們亦浮現出下到幾種可能的關係:1.自覺有副作用的比率佔所有使用婦女的46.6%,且其中至少一半以上最後會因副作用而取出避孕器。2.副作用的發生與避孕器種類無統計相關,而對使用期間長短和對以彼避孕方法的偏好有影響性。3.婦女將無關的不適歸罪於避孕器的情形可能是存在的。4.使用避孕器經驗不適者,更易鼓勵從使其接受結紮。5.自覺副作用比率以在私立醫院診所裝置者?最低。
    Removal is the most important reason for terminating the use of IUDs, and side effect is the main reason for removing IUDs. This paper estimated the occurrence rates of side effects perceived by users of IUDs and studied the relationships between side effects and types of IUDs, results of use and preferences for contraceptives. Data were drawn from ”the Follow-up Survey of Contraceptive users” conducted by Taiwan Provincial Institute of Famiy Planning in 1985. Besides the result showed form the descriptive data, it appeared some possible relationships: (1) 46.6% of the users perceived to have side effects and at least half of them terminating the use of IUDs for the side effects. (2) There was no relationship between side effects and types of IUDs. But side effects had influences on the duration of use and future preferences for contraceptives. (3) It may be true that IUDs were sometimes blamed for the complaints which were not relative to IUDs. (4) Users with uncomfortable experience in IUDs may be persuaded to accept ligation more easily. (5) Occurrence rate of self-perceptive side effects was lowest while IUDs were inserted by private hospitals or clinics.
  • 20 - 36
  • 10.6288/JNPHARC1987-07-02-03
  • Link 原著 Original Article
  • 直讀式檢知管之判讀誤差Personal Errors in Reading Stain Lengths of Direct Reading Colorimetric Indicators
  • 林嘉明、湯大同、徐儆暉
    Jia-Ming Lin, Da-Toung Tang, Jin-Fe Hsu

  • n-hexane ; accuracy ; indicator tubes
  • 直讀式檢知管因為使用方便,被廣泛應用於偵測空氣中之污染物,廠商甚至宣稱生手亦可應用自如。事實上,我國現階段以檢知管偵測有機蒸氣之普遍性彷彿勝於標準活性炭管採樣法。過份沈溺於檢知管的方便性而忽略判讀時所伴隨之誤差,結果常造成錯誤的環境印象。於是本研究以國內普遍使用之日製檢知管採集標準正己燒蒸氣而由生手及經初步訓練之人員判讀,發現以檢知管判讀濃度之準確度為22%,訓練會改善判讀之準確度,但對精密度的改善沒有顯著之影響。據此,建議只使用檢知管做初步偵測,發現濃度近似值與濃度範圍,而不便做過度延伸。
    The colorimetric indicator tubes for n-hexane are rapid convenient and relatively less-expensive methods for determining the vapor of n-hexane in ambient air. However, this method only can be used for determining concentration- range and approximation in concentration. Although the training through group discussion is likely to reduce the personal error in reading stain length, the accuracy is in the order of plus or minus 22%.
  • 37 - 41
  • 10.6288/JNPHARC1987-07-02-04
  • Link 實務 Public Health Practice
  • 農藥工廠工業衛生概況資料庫之建立A Computer Package of Industrial Hygiene in Pesticide Factory
  • 沈志亮、沈志陽
    CL Shen, CY Shen

  • data base ; Chinese system ; pesticide factory
  • 本文是以全國職業危害調查問卷所記載之內容?基礎,設計了一個農藥工廠工業衛生概況資料庫。dBase Ⅲ,倚天中文系統,及友善使用者程式是構成本資料庫軟體部份三個主要的組成,而硬體需求則是以十六位元個人電腦?主。資料庫共有增添資料,修改資料,查詢資料,分析資料等功能,可做?有關單位對工廠工業衛生電腦化管理的參考。
    We have designed a data base package which can be used for monitoring the industrial hygiene condition of the pesticide factories in 'Taiwan. The package is based on dBASE ? and Ei-Tan Chinese system and is modified to make it more friendly to users. It is tested on a general survey of industrial hygiene of 62 pesticide factories, and seems to be quite suitable for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Agency to monitor the field condition.
  • 42 - 52
  • 10.6288/JNPHARC1987-07-02-05
  • Link 其他 Others
  • 1951年以來的死亡趨勢Mortality Trend in Taiwan Since 1951
  • 江東亮
    T-L Chiang

  • none

  • none
  • 53 - 64
  • 10.6288/JNPHARC1987-07-02-06